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Cara Mengatasi Kebakaran


Ada 3 (tiga) cara untuk mengatasi/memadamkan kebakaran :

Cara penguraian yaitu cara memadamkan dengan memisahkanatau menjauhkan bahan / benda-benda yang dapat terbakar
Cara pendinginan yaitu cara memadamkan kebakaran denganmenurunkan panas atau suhu. Bahan airlah yang paling dominandigunakan dalam menurunkan panas dengan jalanmenyemprotkan atau menyiramkan air ketitik api.
Cara Isolasi / lokalisasi yaitu cara pemadaman kebakarandengan mengurangi kadar / prosentase O2 pada benda-bendayang terbakar.

Bahan Pemadam KebakaranBahan pemadam kebakaran yang banyak dijumpai dan dipakai pada saat ini antara lain :
Bahan pemadam Air
Bahan pemadam Busa (Foam)
Bahan pemadam Gas CO2
Bahan pemadam powder kering (Dry chemical)
Bahan pemadam Gas Halon (BCF)

Bahan pemadam Air
Bahan pemadam air mudah didapat, harga murah, dapat digunakandalam jumlah yang tak terbatas bahkan tidak perlu beli/gratis.

Air disamping menurunkan panas/suhu (mendinginkan) dapat pula menahan/menolak dan mengusir masuknya oksigen apabila dikabutkan.

Pada saat ini bahan pemadam kebakaran air banyak digunakan dengan sistim/bentuk kabut (Fog), karena mempunyai beberapa kelebihan jika dibandingkan dengan pancaran air antara lain :
Mempunyai kemampuan menyerap panas (pendinginan) lebihbesar. 1 liter air yang dipancarkan dapat menyerap panas 30 kcal,sedangkan bila dikabutkan 1 liter air dapat menjadi uap sebanyak 1.600 lt dan akan menyerap panas sampai 300 kcal.
Peyemprotan nozzel lebih mudah dikendalikan, dengan mengaturnozzel pancaran dapat dikendalikan bahkan sistim kabut (fog)
Menghasilkan udara segar
Dapat digunakan pada kebakaran minyak (Zat cair)

Keuntungan dan kerugian bahan air :

1. sebagai media pendingin yang baik
2. mudah didapat dan besar jumlahnya
3. biaya eksploitasi rendah

Kerugian :
1. menghantar listrik
2. penggunaan dikapal dapat mengganggu keseimbangan(stabilitas)
3. dapat merusak barang-barang berharga tertentuseperti alat-alat elektronik
4. menambah panas apabila terkena karbit kopramentah, atau bahan-bahan kimia tertentu

Bahan pemadam Busa (Foam)

Bahan pemadam busa efektif untuk memadamkan kebakaran kelas B(minyak, solar dan cairnya), untuk memadamkan kebakaran bendapadat (Kelas A) kurang baik , Seperti diketahui bahwa pemadam kebakaran dengan bahan busa adalah dengan cara isolasi yaitu mencegah masuknya udara dalamproses kebakaran (api), dengan menutup/menyelimuti permukaan benda yang terbakar sehingga api tidak mengalir.

Menurut proses pembuatannya terdapat dua jenis busa yaitu :
Busa kimia ( Chemis )
Busa mekanis- Busa kurang sesuai untuk disemprotkan pada permukaan cairan yang mudah bercampur dengan air (Alkohol, spirtus) karena busa mudah larut dalam air

Bahan pemadam Gas CO2

Bahan pemadam kebakaran CO2 atau karbon dioksida berupa gas dan dapat digunakan untuk memadamkan segala jenis kebakaran terutama kelas C. Dengan menghembuskan gas CO2 akan dapat mengusir dan mengurangi prosentase oksigen (O2) yang ada diudarasampai 12 % – 15 %- Gas CO2 ini lebih berat dari pada udara dan seperti gas-gas lain tidak menghantar listrik, tidak berbau dan tidak meninggalkan bekas/bersih.

Bahan pemadaman Tepung (powder) kimia kering (drychemical)

Dry chemical dapat digunakan untuk semua jenis kebakaran, Tidak berbahaya bagi manusia / binatang karena tidak beracun,

Bahan dry chemical disebut sebagai bahan pemadam kebakaran yang berfungsi ganda (multi purpose extinguisher)
Tidak menghantar listrik, Powder berfungsi mengikat oksigen (isolasi) dan juga dapat mengikat gas-gas lain yang membahayakan.
Dapat menurunkan suhu, Mudah dibersihkan dan tidak merusak alat-alat,

Cara penggunaanya dry chemical hampir sama dengan gas CO2 yaitu sebagai berikut :
Pertama harus diperhatikan adanya/arah angin, jika angin bertiup terlalu kuat maka penggunaan dry chemical ini tidak efisien.
Arahkan pancaran pemotong nyala api dan usahakan dapatterbentuk semacam awan/asap untuk menutup nyala api tersebut.

Bahan pemadam Gas Halon (BCF)
Alat Pemadam Api Ringan jenis Halon 1211 (BCF/ Carbon, Flourine, Chlorine, Bromide).
Halon 1211 (BCF) biasanya dipasang di dinding-dinding kantor dalam bentuk Alat Pemadam Api Ringan (APAR) dan efektif digunakan pada ruangan, karena dalam pemadaman kebakaran bersifat mengisolir oksigen, disamping itu gas halon sangat baik karena tidak bersifat merusak dan bersih.


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